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Glossary of Terms

4 Cs: A universal grading system developed by GIA (Gemological Institute of America) to evaluate the quality of a diamond. The 4 Cs are Carat, Color, Clarity, and Cut.

Accent Gemstones: Gemstones within a jewelry design that are not the main focus but instead accent or complement the center gemstone and side gemstones. Accent gemstones are typically comprised of melee gemstones.

Alloy: A mixture of two or more metals to create more desirable characteristics and/or added strength.

Anneal: A process used to bring metal alloys to a desired consistency, texture, or hardness by gradually heating and cooling.

Anniversary Band: A ring of three or more diamonds or gemstones, typically set in a channel or prong setting. The stones partially encircle the ring.

Antique Jewelry: Jewelry that is 100 years old or more.

Anticlastic: A form that is curved in two directions opposite one another (saddle-shaped). See Synclastic.

Art Deco: A decorative style of the 1920s and 1930s that features bold geometric shapes, linear patterns, and diverse colors.

Art Nouveau: A decorative style from the late 1800s to the early 1900s characterized by free-flowing lines and stylized natural forms such as flowers, leaves, and the feminine form.

Assay: The process used when determining the proportions of precious metal contained in a piece of gold, silver, or other alloys.

Attribute: A characteristic of a product that can include color, design, style, form, shape, or feature.

Azured: A mounting that leaves a gemstone's pavilion facets uncovered so that light can enter.

Baby/Youth: Describes items small in scale to be worn by babies, toddlers, and teens. Earring posts are usually shorter and are often threaded or have some sort of safety clasp. Rings are usually sizes 0–3. Bracelets are usually 5–5½" long. Necklaces are usually 15"–16" long.

Bail: An arched (often oval, teardrop, or d-shaped) metal component used to hang a pendant from a chain or cord. It is meant to slide onto the chain rather than being soldered to it so that the pendant moves independently from the chain and is not a permanent part of the chain or cord.

Band: A ring, usually uniform in width, with no distinguishable “top”; may be set with gemstones.

Bangle Bracelet: A closed, rigid bracelet – with or without a hinge and clasp – that slides over the hand.

Baroque: An irregular-shaped stone or pearl. Also, an art style characterized by ornate detail.

Bar Set: A setting technique where the gemstone is secured between two parallel bars, while the sides of the gem remain open.

Base Metal: A term informally referring to non-precious metals (such as copper, zinc, tin, nickel, lead, or iron), which are commonly used in costume jewelry.

Basket Setting: A type of prong setting with open sides similar to a basket weave, that allows the lower portion of the gemstone to be visible.

Basse-taille: An enameling technique in which a low-relief pattern is created in metal by engraving or chasing, then the entire pattern is filled with translucent enamel (similar to French “low height” champlevé). See Enamel.

Bead: A small, usually spherical component made from a variety of materials, which may be partially drilled or fully drilled. A full drilled bead will have one or more holes through it, allowing it to be strung singularly or with others in a sequence. Beads in shapes other than round are sometimes described as “fancy.”

Bead Set: A method for securing a gemstone where a small bur of metal is raised with a graver and pushed over the edge of the gemstone.

Belcher: A ring mounting in which the prongs for the setting are formed from the shank of the ring so that the gemstone does not extend above the circumference of the shank.

Bezel-Set: A method for securing a gemstone in which a band of metal encircles the girdle of the gemstone and is folded over the gem to hold it in place.

Birthstone: A precious or semi-precious gemstone popularly associated with the month of birth.

Body Jewelry: Jewelry that was manufactured specifically for use in body piercing.

Bracelet: An ornamental band or circlet for the wrist, arm, or sometimes for the ankle.

Bracelet Slide: A bead-type adornment designed with two sets of holes to allow it to be strung onto a bracelet constructed of two rows of chain. The resulting bracelet is known as a slide bracelet.

Bridal Set: A matching set of rings that includes an engagement ring and a wedding band.

Briolette: A type of faceted gemstone bead that is teardrop-shaped with triangular or diamond-shaped facets that meet at the top of the bead.

Britannia Silver: An alloy of silver containing 95.8% silver.

Brooch: A large, decorative pin that is typically worn to fasten a cloak or cape.

Buckle Ring: A ring comprised of two parts; one part is the ring shank and the other is a section that folds over the ring to simulate the action of a belt buckle.

Bullion: In the form of bars, ingots, or plates; not coined.

Butterfly Back: The small, hinged piece of metal on a post earring that is pressed against the post to secure the earring in the earlobe. This design is a type of clasp, although the piece is often referred to as the clutch.

Byzantine Link: A link that is square in shape and somewhat thicker than the average link. The links are woven together in a manner that resembles a four-sided box.

Cabochon: A gemstone that has been shaped and polished instead of faceted. The finished gem has a convex, rounded top with no faceting and a flat or slightly domed base.

Cameo: A carved, raised relief image or design on a hard stone or glass that is often in contrast with the background.

Cannetille: Decorative twisted wirework used in the making of jewelry in the 1820s and 1830s.

Carat (ct): The unit of weight for a diamond or other gemstone. One carat is equal to 0.2 grams.

Casting: The process of creating jewelry by pouring molten metal into a mold.

Cathedral Setting: A type of ring setting where the band arches upward to support the center stone, creating a cathedral-like effect.

Cellini Spiral: A beading technique that combines circular peyote with tubular peyote to create a spiral pattern.

Celtic Knot: A motif in which a single, unbroken line weaves in and out of a design, often symbolizing eternity.

Ceylon Sapphire: A term commonly used to describe high-quality blue sapphires from Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon).

Channel Setting: A method of setting gemstones between two strips of metal, creating a "channel" of stones.

Charm Bracelet: A bracelet adorned with small, hanging trinkets or charms.

Chasing: A metalworking technique where a design is either hammered or engraved onto the surface of a metal object.

Chatelaine: A decorative clasp or hook attached to the waist of a woman's dress, with chains suspended for holding a watch, keys, or other items.

Chemical Bond: The force that holds two atoms together in a molecule.

Choker: A close-fitting necklace worn around the neck.

Chrysoprase: A green variety of chalcedony, often used as a gemstone.

Claddagh Ring: A traditional Irish ring featuring two hands holding a heart with a crown on top, symbolizing love, loyalty, and friendship.

Classic: Describes jewelry that is based on traditional, enduring designs.

Claw Setting: A method of setting gemstones where prongs or claws secure the stone in place.

Cleavage: The tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weakness.

Cloisonné: An enameling technique where thin wires are used to create compartments (cloisons) that are filled with enamel.

Cluster Setting: A ring setting with multiple small gemstones grouped closely together to create the appearance of a larger stone.

Coin Silver: An alloy of silver containing 90% silver.

Collar: A necklace that fits closely around the neck.

Color Change: A phenomenon in certain gemstones where the color changes under different light sources.

Comfort Fit: A type of ring design where the interior of the band is curved, providing a more comfortable fit.

Composite: A gemstone made by bonding together two or more different materials.

Cord: A flexible, typically cylindrical bundle of fibers or threads used for fastening, tying, or carrying.

Cornelian: A reddish-brown to red variety of chalcedony.

Cousin It: Describes a piece of jewelry made up of long, dangling chain sections or beaded strands, giving the appearance of Cousin It from the Addams Family television show.

Cravat Pin: A decorative pin, often featuring a gemstone or cameo, that was used to secure a cravat or necktie.

Creole Earring: A type of hoop earring that is typically hinged and snaps closed.

Crown: The top portion of a cut gemstone above the girdle.

Crucifix: A cross with a representation of Jesus Christ on it.

Cubic Zirconia (CZ): A synthetic gemstone that closely resembles a diamond.

Cuff Bracelet: A wide, rigid bracelet that is open on one side, allowing it to be easily slipped onto the wrist.

Cultured Pearl: A pearl that is grown by oysters or mollusks with human intervention.

Curb Link: A type of chain link with twisted oval links that lie flat.

Curio: A small, decorative item with historical or artistic significance.

Cushion Cut: A square or rectangular cut gemstone with rounded corners, resembling a pillow or cushion.

Cut: The style or design applied to a gemstone, typically referring to the arrangement of its facets.

Cut Steel: Small, faceted steel beads used as a substitute for gemstones in jewelry.

Cymophane: Another name for cat's eye chrysoberyl, known for its chatoyancy or cat's eye effect.

CZ: Abbreviation for cubic zirconia.

Dangle Earring: An earring that hangs down, often featuring a decorative element or gemstone.

Demi-Parure: A set of matching jewelry that includes fewer pieces than a full parure.

Denier: A unit of measurement for the fineness or thickness of fibers, especially in hosiery.

Die-Cut: A design or shape cut from a material using a die, often seen in jewelry made from metals or paper.

Diorama: A three-dimensional scene, often displayed in a shadow box, featuring miniature figures or objects.

Dish Setting: A type of prong setting where the prongs are curved around the gemstone, creating a dish-like appearance.

Dollhouse Jewelry: Tiny pieces of jewelry made for dollhouses.

Dome: A convex or rounded top on a gemstone or jewelry component.

Domed Band: A ring shank that is curved or rounded on the outer surface.

Dormeuse Earring: A type of hoop earring with a pendant drop or dangle.

Double Back: A method for securing a gemstone where a channel is created under the gemstone to allow light to enter through the pavilion facets.

Double Clasp: A clasp that has two locking mechanisms for added security.

Doublet: A gemstone composed of two layers, usually with a colored layer on top and a clear layer on the bottom.

Doubloon: A former gold coin of Spain and Spanish America.

Dress Clip: A type of brooch that is divided into two or more sections, allowing it to be worn in various configurations.

Druzy: A layer of minute crystals that forms on the surface of a rock or mineral.

Dublet: An Australian term for a doublet.

Duette: A brooch that can be separated into two dress clips.

Dutch Metal: Imitation gold leaf made from an alloy of copper and zinc.

Ear Cuff: A type of earring that wraps around the outer part of the ear, requiring no piercing.

Ear Thread: A type of earring consisting of a chain or thread that passes through the earlobe.

Ear Wire: The part of an earring that passes through the earlobe, typically a curved wire.

Edwardian: A style of jewelry popular during the reign of King Edward VII (1901-1910).

Egyptian Revival: A style of jewelry influenced by ancient Egyptian art and motifs.

Electroforming: A metalworking technique where a layer of metal is built up through electrodeposition.

Emerald Cut: A rectangular or square cut gemstone with cut corners, originally developed for emeralds.

Emeraude: Another term for emerald.

Embossing: A metalworking technique where a design is raised above the surface of the metal.

Emerald: A green gemstone from the beryl family.

Enamel: A decorative coating of colored glass or ceramic fused to metal.

Enamelwork: The art of decorating metal with colored enamels.

Estate Jewelry: Previously owned jewelry, often acquired from an estate.

Eternity Ring: A ring with gemstones (usually diamonds) encircling the entire band, symbolizing eternal love.

Etui: A small, decorative case for holding items such as sewing needles, cosmetics, or small personal belongings.

Etruscan Revival: A style of jewelry influenced by ancient Etruscan art, characterized by intricate goldwork and granulation.

European Cut: An antique diamond cut with a circular shape and a smaller table than modern brilliant cuts.

Expressionism: An art movement that emphasizes expressing emotional experience through abstraction.

Eye Agate: A type of agate with markings that resemble eyes.

Eye Clean: A term used for gemstones that are free of visible inclusions or blemishes when viewed with the naked eye.

Fabrication: The process of creating jewelry by assembling various components without the use of casting.

Fancy Cut: Any gemstone shape other than a round brilliant cut.

Fancy Link: A type of chain with links that are not uniform in size or shape.

Faux: French for "false" or "fake," used to describe imitation or simulated materials.

Fede Ring: A traditional Italian ring featuring two hands clasping, symbolizing faith and trust.

Feldspar: A group of minerals commonly used in jewelry, including moonstone and sunstone.

Ferido: A type of pavé setting where the stones are set very close together, leaving no metal visible.

Festoon: A decorative chain or garland, often suspended between two points.

Fiber Optic Beads: Beads made from optical glass fibers that create a cat's eye effect.

Filigree: Delicate metalwork formed into intricate designs, often resembling lace.

Finger Ring: A ring worn on a finger.

Finishing: The final steps in jewelry production, including polishing, cleaning, and any additional decorative elements.

Fishtail Setting: A type of prong setting with prongs that resemble fishtails, often used for larger stones.

Five-Stone Ring: A ring featuring five gemstones of the same size, often symbolizing the five years of marriage in anniversary jewelry.

Flexible Bracelet: A bracelet made with a flexible, mesh-like structure that allows it to move with ease.

Florentine Finish: A finish on metal that resembles brushed or textured gold.

Floral Motif: A design element inspired by flowers.

Fluorescence: A phenomenon in which a gemstone exhibits a glowing effect when exposed to ultraviolet light.

Fob: A small ornament or seal attached to a watch chain or keychain.

Foldover Clasp: A type of clasp that folds over and snaps closed.

Forged: Jewelry made by shaping metal through hammering or other methods, rather than casting.

Four-Prong Setting: A setting with four prongs to secure a gemstone in place.

French Jet: Black glass that is faceted to resemble jet.

French Wire: A coiled, flexible wire used in beaded jewelry to protect the thread from abrasion.

Freshwater Pearl: A pearl produced by freshwater mussels.

Fretwork: Intricate patterns or designs created by cutting away portions of a material, often seen in metalwork.

Friction Back: A type of earring back that uses pressure and friction to secure the earring in place.

Garnet: A group of minerals with similar crystal structures, available in various colors.

Gauge: A unit of measurement used for various aspects of jewelry, such as wire thickness.

Gemology: The study of gemstones, including their properties, identification, and grading.

Gemstone: A precious or semi-precious stone used in jewelry for its beauty and rarity.

Georgian: A style of jewelry from the Georgian era (1714-1837), characterized by intricate metalwork and the use of foiled gemstones.

German Silver: An alloy containing copper, zinc, and nickel, often used as a base metal in jewelry.

GIA: Abbreviation for the Gemological Institute of America, a renowned gemological laboratory.

Girdle: The outer edge, or widest part, of a gemstone.

Girandole Earring: An earring with multiple hanging elements, often featuring gemstones.

Gold: A precious metal valued for its rarity and beauty, often used in jewelry.

Gold Filled: A layer of gold mechanically bonded to a base metal.

Gold Leaf: A thin sheet of gold used for gilding or decorating surfaces.

Gold Plated: A layer of gold applied to a base metal through electroplating.

Goldstone: A type of synthetic glass with suspended metallic particles.

Graduated Necklace: A necklace with beads or stones that increase in size toward the center.

Granulation: A decorative technique where tiny metal beads are fused onto a surface.

Green Gold: A gold alloy with a greenish tint.

Grisaille: A monochromatic painting or decoration in shades of gray.

Grossular Garnet: A variety of garnet with a green color, including tsavorite and hessonite.

Guilloché: An engraving or carving technique producing intricate patterns, often seen in metalwork.

Gypsy Setting: A type of setting where a gemstone is flush with the surface of the metal.

Half-Hoop Earring: An earring with a row of gemstones or decorative elements covering only the front half of the hoop.

Hallmark: A mark or series of marks on precious metals to indicate purity and authenticity.

Hammered Finish: A metal finish created by striking the metal with a hammer to create texture.

Hand Engraving: A technique where designs are incised into metal using a burin or graver.

Hardness: The resistance of a material to scratching.

Hat Pin: A long pin used to secure a hat to the hair or wig.

Headpin: A long, straight pin with a small head used in jewelry making.

Heirloom: A piece of jewelry passed down through generations.

Hematite: A metallic black or dark gray mineral often used as a gemstone.

Herringbone Chain: A flat, woven chain that resembles the pattern of a herringbone.

Hidden Clasp: A clasp that is not immediately visible, often concealed within the design.

High Polish: A smooth, reflective finish achieved through polishing.

Hoops: Earrings that form a circular or semi-circular shape.

Hope Diamond: A famous blue diamond with a tragic history, now housed in the Smithsonian Institution.

Horology: The study of timekeeping and the design and production of timekeeping instruments.

Huggie Earring: A small, close-fitting hoop earring that "hugs" the earlobe.

Inclusion: A natural imperfection or foreign material enclosed in a gemstone.

Ingot: A block or wedge of metal.

Inlaid: Decorated by setting materials into the surface of another material.

Invisible Setting: A setting style where gemstones are held in place with no visible prongs or metal.

Iolite: A violet to blue gemstone often used as a substitute for sapphire.

Iron Pyrite: Also known as fool's gold, a brassy yellow mineral often mistaken for gold.

Irradiation: The process of exposing a gemstone to radiation to alter its color.

Jabot Pin: A decorative pin with two dangling elements, often used to fasten a jabot or cravat.

Jade: A green gemstone often used in East Asian jewelry.

Japanning: A type of lacquerware that imitates Asian lacquerwork.

Jardinière: A decorative container for holding flowers or plants.

Jasper: An opaque, multicolored variety of chalcedony.

Jet: A type of lignite coal that can be carved and polished.

Jeweler's Loupe: A small magnifying glass used by jewelers to inspect gemstones and jewelry.

Jewelry: Personal ornaments, such as rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets, often made from precious metals and gemstones.

J-Hook Clasp: A type of clasp shaped like the letter "J" that hooks onto a loop.

Karat: A unit of measurement for the purity of gold, with 24 karats being pure gold.

Keepsake: An item kept for sentimental reasons, often with personal or emotional significance.

Key Ring: A small ring used to hold keys.

Knot Work: Decorative designs formed by interlacing cords, threads, or other materials.

Kunzite: A pink to violet gemstone, a variety of spodumene.

Lacquer: A clear or colored coating applied to metal or wood for protection and decoration.

Lanyard: A cord or strap worn around the neck to hold a whistle, badge, or other items.

Lapis Lazuli: A deep blue metamorphic rock used as a gemstone.

Lariat Necklace: A long, open-ended necklace that can be worn in various ways.

Lavalier Necklace: A necklace with a pendant or drop, often set with gemstones.

Leather: A flexible material made from animal hide, often used in jewelry.

Leverback Earring: A type of earring back that uses a lever mechanism to secure the earring in place.

Lever-Set Watch: A pocket watch with a setting mechanism activated by a lever.

Link Bracelet: A bracelet made up of individual links connected to form a chain.

Lock: A fastening mechanism used in jewelry, such as a lobster clasp or spring ring.

Locket: A small, hinged pendant designed to hold a photograph or other small keepsake.

London Blue Topaz: A deep blue variety of topaz, often treated to enhance its color.

Long Chain: A necklace with a longer length, often worn as a single strand or doubled.

Lorgnette: A pair of eyeglasses with a handle.

Lustre: The quality of shine or reflectivity in a gemstone.

Lynx Setting: A type of prong setting where the prongs have a double-bead design.

Mabe Pearl: A cultured blister pearl that is hemispherical in shape.

Magnetic Clasp: A type of clasp that uses magnets to hold the two ends together.

Malachite: A green mineral often used as a gemstone.

Marcasite: A metallic mineral often used as an inexpensive substitute for gemstones.

Mariner Link: A type of chain link resembling an anchor chain.

Marquise Cut: A gemstone cut with an elongated, pointed oval shape.

Matinee Necklace: A necklace with a medium length, typically worn in a single strand.

Matte Finish: A non-reflective surface achieved through sandblasting or other methods.

Meander: A decorative border pattern used in ancient Greek art, also known as a Greek key design.

Meenakari: An enameling technique where colors are applied to metal, often used in Indian jewelry.

Mesh Bracelet: A bracelet made from a mesh-like material, often flexible.

Millefiori: Italian for "a thousand flowers," a glasswork technique producing decorative patterns.

Milgrain: Tiny beaded or granulated detailing along the edges of metalwork.

Millegrain: Another term for milgrain.

Minaret Cut: A step cut gemstone with elongated, tapered corners.

Mirror Setting: A type of setting where the pavilion facets of a gemstone are mirrored.

Moissanite: A synthetic gemstone that closely resembles a diamond.

Mokume Gane: A Japanese metalworking technique that produces woodgrain-like patterns.

Monogram: A design consisting of one or more letters, often representing initials.

Moonstone: A gemstone that displays a play of light or adularescence.

Moss Agate: A type of agate with moss-like inclusions.

Mounting: The portion of a piece of jewelry that holds the gemstone.

Mounting Plate: The portion of a setting that the gemstone rests on.

Mourning Jewelry: Jewelry worn to mourn the death of a loved one.

Multi-Strand Bracelet: A bracelet with multiple strands of beads or chains.

Mystic Topaz: A treated topaz with a rainbow-like play of colors.

Navette: Another term for marquise-cut gemstones.

Nephrite Jade: A variety of jade with a creamy white to green color.

Niello: A black metallic alloy used in enameling.

Nugget: A small, irregularly shaped piece of metal.

Nugget Bead: A bead made to resemble a small, irregularly shaped metal nugget.

Oblong: A rectangular or elongated gemstone shape.

Oecumenical Council: In ecclesiastical terms, a formal meeting of the church's leaders.

Olivine: A green mineral often used as a gemstone.

Omega Back: A type of earring back shaped like the Greek letter omega.

Opal: A gemstone known for its play of colors or opalescence.

Opalescence: The optical phenomenon of producing colors in a gemstone that change with the angle of observation.

Oval Cut: A gemstone cut with a rounded, elongated shape.

Overlapping Bangle: A bangle bracelet with overlapping ends.

Oxidation: The process of a material reacting with oxygen, often seen in metals.

Palladium: A precious metal in the platinum family, often used in jewelry.

Pandora Bracelet: A type of charm bracelet designed by the company Pandora.

Papal Cross: A cross with three horizontal bars, traditionally associated with the Pope.

Papier-Mâché: A material made from paper pulp, often used in costume jewelry.

Parure: A set of matching jewelry, often consisting of a necklace, earrings, bracelet, and brooch.

Pâte de Verre: A glasswork technique involving crushed glass.

Pavé: A setting style where numerous small gemstones are set close together, covering a surface.

Pavé Setting: Another term for pavé.

Pear Cut: A gemstone cut with a rounded shape on one end and a tapering point on the other.

Pearl: A gemstone formed within the shell of a mollusk.

Pendant: A hanging ornament suspended from a chain or necklace.

Pendant Earring: An earring with a hanging ornament, often a gemstone or decorative element.

Pennyweight: A unit of weight for precious metals, equal to 1/20th of a troy ounce.

Peridot: A green gemstone often used in jewelry.

Perle Fin: French for "fine pearl," used to describe high-quality pearls.

Peruzzi Cut: A gemstone cut with an extra row of facets on the pavilion.

Petrified Wood: Fossilized wood that has turned into stone.

Pierced Work: Openwork designs created by cutting away portions of metal.

Pin Catch: Another term for pin stem.

Pin Stem: The long, slender part of a brooch or pin used to attach it to fabric.

Pinchbeck: An alloy resembling gold, often used in costume jewelry.

Pink Gold: A gold alloy with a pinkish tint.

Pink Sapphire: A pink variety of corundum, the same mineral as sapphire.

Pinning: Securing a gemstone in a setting using pins.

Pinchbeck Jewelry: Jewelry made from pinchbeck, often imitating gold.

Pique: Decorative patterns created by inlaying gold or silver into tortoiseshell or ivory.

Plaque: A flat, thin piece of metal used in jewelry.

Plastic: A synthetic material often used in costume jewelry.

Platinum: A precious metal known for its durability and rarity, often used in fine jewelry.

Point Cut: A gemstone cut with a pointed, cone-like shape.

Poissarde Earring: A type of earring with a large hoop and dangling ornaments.

Polished Finish: A smooth and shiny surface achieved through polishing.

Pomander: A ball or container filled with perfumes or aromatic substances.

Popcorn Chain: A type of chain with small, round, ball-like links.

Popigaiite: A type of impactite glass formed during a meteorite impact.

Porcelain: A type of ceramic often used in jewelry.

Porte Photo: A locket or pendant designed to hold a photograph.

Porte-Monnaie: A small purse or wallet, often attached to a chatelaine.

Portrait Miniature: A small, detailed portrait, often painted on ivory.

Prasiolite: A green variety of quartz, also known as green amethyst.

Princess Cut: A square or rectangular cut gemstone with pointed corners.

Prong Setting: A setting style using metal prongs to hold a gemstone in place.

Puffed: A design element that is inflated or rounded, creating a three-dimensional appearance.

Punché: French for "punched," often seen in hallmarks.

Punzón: Spanish for "punch," often seen in hallmarks.

Purple Gold: A gold alloy with a purple tint.

Push Present: A gift given to a new mother, often in celebration of the birth of a child.

Pyrope: A deep red variety of garnet.

Quartz: A mineral often used in jewelry, available in various colors.

Quatrefoil: A decorative element with four leaves or lobes.

Radiant Cut: A gemstone cut with a rectangular or square shape and cut corners, combining aspects of round and princess cuts.

Railroad Track Link: A type of chain link with a resemblance to railroad tracks.

Rainbow Moonstone: A type of moonstone with a bluish adularescence.

Raj Era: The era of British rule in India from 1858 to 1947.

Rajasthan: A state in northern India known for its rich history of jewelry making.

Repoussé: A metalworking technique where a design is hammered from the reverse side to create a raised relief.

Restringing: The process of rethreading beads or gemstones in a necklace or bracelet.

Rhodium: A precious metal in the platinum family, often used as a plating for white gold or silver.

Rhodolite: A purplish-red variety of garnet.

Ribbon Bow Motif: A decorative design element resembling a tied ribbon bow.

Rice Bead: A small, cylindrical bead resembling a grain of rice.

Ring: A circular band worn as jewelry on the finger.

Ring Sizer: A tool used to measure the size of a finger for ring fitting.

Rivière Necklace: A necklace with a single strand of gemstones, typically diamonds.

Rose Cut: An antique gemstone cut with a flat base and a faceted dome, resembling the shape of a rosebud.

Rose Gold: A gold alloy with a pinkish tint.

Rose Quartz: A pink variety of quartz.

Rose Window: A circular window with decorative tracery resembling a rose.

Rough: Uncut and unpolished gemstones.

Round Cut: A gemstone cut with a circular shape, often with a brilliant faceting pattern.

Row Counter Bracelet: A bracelet with a movable bead used to count rows in knitting or crocheting.

Ruby: A red gemstone from the corundum family.

Ruthenium: A precious metal in the platinum family, often used in alloying and plating.

Saddle Ring: A ring with a horizontal bar or saddle-shaped element.

Sautoir: A long necklace often ending in a tassel or pendant.

Scallop Setting: A type of gemstone setting with curved edges resembling scallops.

Scarf Ring: A decorative ring designed to hold a scarf in place.

Scepter: An ornament or staff held by rulers or monarchs, often symbolic of power.

Seed Pearl: A small, naturally formed pearl.

Semi-Precious Stone: A gemstone considered less valuable than precious stones but still prized for its beauty.

Setting: The metal framework that holds a gemstone in place.

Shank: The part of a ring that encircles the finger.

Shell Cameo: A cameo carved from a seashell.

Shibuichi: A Japanese alloy of silver and copper.

Shoe Buckle: A decorative or functional buckle used to fasten shoes.

Shoe Button Hook: A tool for fastening buttons on shoes.

Shoulder Brooch: A brooch worn on the shoulder.

Signet Ring: A ring with a flat top engraved with a personal seal or symbol.

Silver: A precious metal often used in jewelry.

Silver Gilt: Silver that has been gilded with a thin layer of gold.

Slider Bracelet: A bracelet with an adjustable sliding mechanism.

Smoky Quartz: A brown to black variety of quartz.

Snake Chain: A smooth, round chain with a flexible structure.

Snap Bar Closure: A type of clasp that snaps closed.

Solitaire Ring: A ring with a single gemstone, typically a diamond.

South Sea Pearl: A large, high-quality pearl produced by Pinctada maxima, a type of oyster.

Spectrolite: A trade name for a Labradorite feldspar with iridescence.

Spinel: A gemstone available in a range of colors, often mistaken for other precious stones.

Split Pearl: A cultured pearl with a flat back, often used in jewelry.

Split Ring: A small, double-coiled ring used for attaching keys or charms.

Spring Ring Clasp: A type of clasp with a spring-loaded lever.

Square Cut: A gemstone cut with a square shape.

Stacking Rings: Rings designed to be worn together, often in a stack.

Stained Glass: Colored glass used in jewelry, often with decorative designs.

Star Sapphire: A sapphire that displays a star-like phenomenon known as asterism.

Stations: Decorative elements set along a necklace or bracelet at intervals.

Steel: A metal alloy often used in costume jewelry.

Step Cut: A gemstone cut with large, broad facets arranged in steps.

Stickpin: A thin pin with a decorative head, often worn in a tie or lapel.

Stone Setting: The process of securing a gemstone in a piece of jewelry.

Stud Earring: A small, simple earring designed to sit on the earlobe.

Stullerite: A type of pyrope garnet with a striking color change.

Suffragette Jewelry: Jewelry associated with the women's suffrage movement, often featuring green, white, and violet stones.

Swag: A decorative chain or fabric draped in a curve between two points.

Swiss Blue Topaz: A bright blue variety of topaz, often treated to enhance its color.

Synthetic Gemstone: A man-made gemstone with the same chemical composition as its natural counterpart.

Tahitian Pearl: A dark-colored pearl produced by the black-lipped oyster.

Talisman: An object believed to bring good luck or have protective qualities.

Tanzanite: A blue to violet gemstone, a variety of zoisite.

Tassie: A carved gemstone or glass replica used in jewelry.

Teardrop Cut: A gemstone cut with a shape resembling a droplet.

Tennis Bracelet: A flexible bracelet with a continuous line of diamonds or gemstones.

Tension Setting: A type of setting where a gemstone is held in place by the tension of the metal.

Terp Pearl: A type of bead made from terpene crystals, used in cannabis culture.

Texture: The surface quality or feel of a material, often created through various finishing techniques.

Threader Earring: A type of earring with a thin chain that threads through the earlobe.

Thrift Store Jewelry: Jewelry purchased secondhand at thrift stores.

Tiger's Eye: A chatoyant gemstone with golden to red-brown color.

Toggle Clasp: A type of clasp consisting of a bar that is inserted into a ring or loop.

Topaz: A gemstone available in various colors, often treated to enhance its appearance.

Tourmaline: A gemstone available in a wide range of colors.

Tousled: A design element that appears tousled or disheveled.

Trefoil: A decorative element with three leaves or lobes.

Trend: A general direction in which something is developing or changing.

Trigger Clasp: A type of clasp with a small lever that opens and closes the mechanism.

Triplet: A composite gemstone made from layers of different materials.

Trinity Knot: A three-pointed knot often used as a symbol of the Holy Trinity.

Tsavorite: A green variety of garnet.

Tubogas: A type of flexible chain made with interlocking, coiled metal strips.

Tudor Rose: A traditional floral emblem of England, often used in jewelry.

Turquoise: A blue to green mineral often used as a gemstone.

Tutti Frutti: A style of jewelry featuring colorful gemstones, popularized by Cartier.

Twist Wire: Thin wire twisted into a helical pattern, often used in Native American jewelry.

Two-Tone Jewelry: Jewelry incorporating two different metal colors.

Umba Sapphire: A type of sapphire from the Umba Valley in Tanzania, known for its vivid colors.

Vauxhall Glass: A type of mirror-backed glass used in Georgian-era jewelry.

Vendome: A high-end line of jewelry produced by the Coro company.

Vermeil: Sterling silver plated with a thin layer of gold.

Victorian Era: The period of Queen Victoria's reign in the United Kingdom from 1837 to 1901.

Victorian Revival: The resurgence of Victorian-style jewelry during the 20th century.

Vintage Jewelry: Jewelry that is at least 20 years old, but less than 100 years old.

Vitreous Enamel: A type of enamel with a glass-like appearance.

Waxing Crescent: A phase of the moon where only a small portion is illuminated.

Waxing Gibbous: A phase of the moon where more than half, but not all, is illuminated.

Wedding Band: A ring exchanged between partners during a wedding ceremony.

Weiss Jewelry: Costume jewelry produced by the Weiss Company.

Wire Jewelry: Jewelry made by shaping and manipulating metal wires.

Woven: A design element created by weaving or intertwining materials.

Xenotime: A phosphate mineral sometimes used as a gemstone.

Yellow Gold: Gold with a natural yellow color, often alloyed with copper or silver.

Yowah Nut Opal: A type of opal found in Yowah, Australia, often resembling a nut.

Yurman, David: An American jewelry designer known for his cable motif.

Zircon: A gemstone available in various colors, often used as a diamond substitute.

Zirconia: Short for cubic zirconia, a synthetic gemstone used as a diamond simulant.

Zoisite: A mineral that includes several gemstone varieties, including tanzanite.

Zuni Jewelry: Native American jewelry produced by the Zuni people, known for intricate stone inlay.